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Questions related to Biology
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Dear friends, I am a master's student in biology. Now I need to added drug to the medium after being diluted into PBS. How much PBS can be added to the medium without affecting the cell growth. The medium I use is DMEM and 10% serums
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From an osmotic point of view, it's not a problem, that's why we are using PBS and not water.
However, you'll dilute nutrients and serum components (growth factors etc) and you're affecting the buffer system, which usually is relying on bicarbonate, HEPES, or alike.
Have a look at the errors/variations you'll have from batch to batch when preparing media. So a variation of 0.1 to 0.5% (i.e 1 to 5 ml per litre) should not pose a problem. In any case, you'll have a PBS only internal control that is lacking your substance of interest.
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Example:
1. You use Material 1 in Biology and after using it, you recycle it in Chemistry to come up with Material 2.
2. You use Material 1 in Biology and then its product is used in Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science.
3. Or any related activities that make use of similar or related ideas.
If you can share also your related studies, I highly appreciate it. Thanks!
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I used 1 material in biology lab and recycle it that's used it in Field work
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Like I want to prepare a senior secondary Biology Subject curriculum block for instruction.
I need the block format, the contents examples etc
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I'm a maths teacher by profession - but here's a few bullet points:
* allow time to pre-assess find out what learners know already
* allow time to cycle through the curriculum twice,
* once at the level the pre assess indicates and to set the ground work of the big picture,
* cycle through the curriculum a 2nd time to either review what wasn't learned or teach to greater depth what was learned
* use retrieval practice questions to follow on from teaching (in maths about 30% of learners forget what they learned in less than a week, but if reviewed by questions within e.g. 5 days and depending on response 2 further weeks or fewer, the retention for learners will be much higher).
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As far as I know it has been dismissed as a closed cased of the history of science having no defenders left. However, that's not the feeling I get when the issue comes up in private discussions. I'm wondering if I have missed something, and if and how vitalism (or some refined modern form of it) is still considered to be a viable option by some biologists?
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Vital force(s) are beyond materialistic description as is very carefully explained by @Reza Sayed . Yet, the recent discoveries on the effects of cell membrane potential on cancerous growth, morphological development, regrowth of organs and limbs that is led by Professor @Michael Levin [1,2] are telling us that it is possible to shift materialistic description of forces shaping living entities a bit further into that was up to a recent time assumed to be undescribable using materialistic science. Electricity plays indispensable role in morphogenesis.
The way, the biological systems think is closely related to self-organizational and their emergent properties when observed from the materialistic point of view. There are observed some very interesting effects within experimental and computational studies, many of them are shared in my projects and are part of my research on emergents in biology [4-6].
Emergents are one of the crucial parts of every single living system in existence. As already said in one of the first answers, emergents are not equal to living systems because we do observe them in non-living systems too.
As a mathematician working in complex system applied to living entities, it is well-known fact to me that emergent behavior is one of the crucial parts of living creatures. Emergence is not sufficient to explain life, but it is its inseparable constituting and organizational feature.
My research brings me in this area and hence, I decided to find out robust emergent structures in simple (very primitive) massive-parallel computational environment called a cellular automaton, which serves as an oversimplified proxy of living system [3].
Surprisingly, it was found that we can construct a simple cellular automaton called r-GoL (robust Game of Life), which is resistant against random injection of one percent of errors into the computation. In other words, emergents do not collapse when subjected to a certain fraction of faulty operations [3].
From the point of view of living systems, it means that we do have means of construction of deterministic rules, which produces emergent structures, that are resilient against errors. This means nothing less than that we are capable to construct reliable computations above unreliable hardware/wetware.
Life itself is very probably exploiting unreliable computational media that is giving rise to very robust emergent and reliable emergent structures. 
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[1] Brook Chernet, Dany S Adams, Maria Lobikin, and Michael Levin: "Use of genetically encoded, light-gated ion translocators to control tumorigenesis", Oncotarget 7(15):19575-19588 (March 2016) DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.8036
[2] Chris Fields and Michael Levin: "Does evolution have a target morphology?", Organisms: Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 1, 57-76. (August 2020) DOI: 10.13133/2532-5876/16814
[3] Jiri Kroc: "Why Do Biology and Medicine Need to Study Robust Massive Parallel Information Processing Environments: Explained on the Game of Life and Its Generalization?", ResearchGate (Feb 2022) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358446061_Why_Do_Biology_and_Medicine_Need_to_Study_Robust_Massive_Parallel_Information_Processing_Environments_Explained_on_the_Game_of_Life_and_Its_Generalization
[4] Project: "Complexity in Medicine: Practical Problems, Their Definitions, Models, and Solutions", ResearchGate, March 7, 2020,
[5] Project: "Complex Systems in Physics, Biology, and Medicine: Backgrounds, Understanding, Modeling, and Software", ResearchGate, April 3, 2017, https://www.researchgate.net/project/Complex-Systems-in-Physics-Biology-and-Medicine-Backgrounds-Understanding-Modeling-and-Software
[6] Project: "Complexity Digest -- Toolkit Containing Root Research Results, Articles, Books, and Software -- Covers Emergence, Self-Organization, and Beyond", ResearchGate, February 11, 2020, https://www.researchgate.net/project/Complexity-Digest--Toolkit-Containing-Root-Research-Results-Articles-Books-and-Software--Covers-Emergence-Self-Organization-and-Beyond
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Most biologists and philosophers understand vitalism as the doctrine of the entelechy, originally proposed by the German biologist Hans Driesch in the early twentieth century. According to Driesch, entelechies were nonmaterial, bio-specific agents responsible for governing a few peculiar biological phenomena. Current attitudes towards vitalism and the doctrine of the entelechy are almost universally negative. Numerous biologists and philosophers today endorse this metaphysical refutation of vitalism. For them, since all events and processes in the world, from the metaphysical point of view, must be identical or reducible to some material (or physical) events and processes, there is no room for nonmaterial agents such as entelechies. The addition of the information instead of the concept of entelechy will change the perspective on vitalism.,
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You might dispense with entelechy or élan vital in favor of information (à la Shannon & Weaver), but wouldn't the resulting theory be a replacement of vitalism with an information-theoretic biology rather than an updated vitalism?
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Hello,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: fischer.carolin@uni-jena.de
Thank you and kind regards,
Carolin
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Hi there Carolin,
sounds like a great topic for a BA thesis :-) I'm interested in your project - potentially also in participating as an interviewee. What precisely are you investigating in your research?
Feel free to contact me at Julius.Riese@web.de
With best wishes from Berlin,
Julius
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Can you please suggest what could be the possible reasons for the confirmation of only 4 out of 13 genes (by qPCR), not all 13? Have anyone observed the same ChIP-qPCR validation issues? Any PubMed suggestion would be great. Thank you for your help in advance.
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Hi Amit
getting results from one experiment and failing to reproduce in an other experiment can allow you the differences and biases from both techniques. maybe you could look at the specificities of all your primers and see what's different in the 9 remaining genes. for instance you can check for specificity by testing your primers in silico at the UCSC website (http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgPcr).
all the best
fred
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For thinking - in regard to overtaking "believes, dogmas"
Blind adoption of believes, dogmas by people in populations (Psychology of the Crowd, by Gustave Le Bon) seems to be psychologically coupled and physically from a social scientific point of view explainable:
here, too, synchronization within masses occurs
- and it seems also in accordance to the Kuramoto model.
For this, only a corresponding marketing strategy, seems to be necessary (applied maths / physics).
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Basis:  Yoshiki Kuramoto assumed in 1975 that there is a weak relationship (better coupling) of oscillating systems (oscillators) and that these are almost identical. Kuramoto found that mathematically between each pair of coupled oscillators, their interaction is sinusoidally dependent on the respective phase difference, resulting into the so-called *Kuramoto Model* This even can be illustrated using initially non-synchronous metronomes, which in the course (under certain conditions: moveable surface) synchronize themselves.
This even seems a basic model in nature, biology, chemistry, physics and/or social sciences: – synchronizing of coupled systems:
– collective flasing of fireflies [Buck 1988]
– collective oscillation of pancreatic beta cells [Sherman 1991]
– the heartbeat synchronized with ventilation [Schäfer 1998]
– pedestrian induced oscillations on bridges [Strogatz 2005]
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References
-Kuramoto, Yoshiki (1975) Self-entrainment of a population of coupled non-linear oscillators. In: Araki H (eds.) International Symposium on Mathematical Problems in Theoretical Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, Volume 39, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/BFb0013365.
-Buck J (1988) Synchronous rhythmic flashing of fireflies, IIi. Q Rev Biol (63)3), 265–289. DOI: 10.1086/415929.
-Sherman A, Rinzel J (1991) Model for synchronization of pancreatic betacells by gap junction coupling. Biophysical journal 59(3), 547–559. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(91)82271-8.
-Schäfer C, Rosenblum MG, Kurths J, Abel HH (1998) Heartbeat synchronized with ventilation, Nature 392(6673), 239–240. DOI: 10.1038/32567.
-Strogatz SH, Abrams DM, McRobie A, Eckhardt B, Ott E (2005) Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the millennium bridge, Nature 438(7064), 43–44. DOI: 10.1038/43843a.
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Credit 'spontaneous synchronization of metronomes' video
#psychology #synchronization #nature #physics #chemistry #biology
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Yes, Björn, these phenomena of spontaneous synchronization of motions include the so-called nano-resonance or Egorov resonance, which explains, for example, the nature of the well-known narrow and intense optical J-band, where, under certain (resonant) conditions, the electronic motion and the motion of the nuclear reorganization of the environment are synchronized. There are good reasons to believe that nano-resonance plays an important role in the life of living organisms.
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Kindly discuss your ideas and viewpoints on the origin of life and the RNA world hypothesis.
What are the contradictory views on why researchers are still unsure about the origin of life through RNA or such analogous molecular intermediate pre-cursors preceding its existence?
"The general notion of an “RNA World” is that, in the early development of life on the Earth, genetic continuity was assured by the replication of RNA and genetically encoded proteins were not involved as catalysts. There is now strong evidence indicating that an RNA World did indeed exist before DNA- and protein-based life. However, arguments regarding whether life on Earth began with RNA are more tenuous. It might be imagined that all of the components of RNA were available in some prebiotic pool and that these components assembled into replicating, evolving polynucleotides without the prior existence of any evolved macromolecules. A thorough consideration of this “RNA-first” view of the origin of life must reconcile concerns regarding the intractable mixtures that are obtained in experiments designed to simulate the chemistry of the primitive Earth. Perhaps these concerns will eventually be resolved, and recent experimental findings provide some reason for optimism. However, the problem of the origin of the RNA World is far from being solved, and it is fruitful to consider the alternative possibility that RNA was preceded by some other replicating, evolving molecule, just as DNA and proteins were preceded by RNA." - Robertson and Joyce
[This is as per the explanation by Michael P Robertson and Gerald F Joyce in the article: "The origins of the RNA world." published in the Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 4, a003608 (2012).]
The scientific community must resolve this contradicting conjecture through rational discussion and debate backed by strong experimental evidence on what must be the pre-cursor molecule to the Origin of Life if it is not RNA!
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Dear Mrutyunjaya,
I am not really in a position to assess the likelihood of an RNA World scenario for the origin of life on Earth. However, I would like to point out that from an astrobiological standpoint, I think that we should keep an open mind on the huge variety and broad range of potential (evolutionary) pathways leading to life. Moreover, a lot also depends on the precise definition of "life" and from which stage or time onwards we classify certain phenomena as "life". If life exists outside of Earth, it may look very different to what we have become accustomed to on our "pale blue dot". Once we have confirmed at least a second, independent instance of a living system in the universe, we may also see clearer on how probable a RNA World scenario may have been for the case of Earth (even if we may never be able to reconstruct and verify the exact pathway...).
Thanks & all the best,
Julius
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Yesterday I have read a news stating that The embryo fossil, nicknamed “Baby Yingliang,” was discovered in Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province in southern China, and is believed to be at least 66 million years old. Researcher Dr. Fion Waisum Ma told the AFP news agency that the discovery is “the best dinosaur embryo ever found in history” (globalnews, 2021).
Although there were several discoveries of Dinosaur components such as:
Eggs
DNAs from thier remains
are frequently being discovered, Since the biotechnology development is in its Zenith at 2022, Why nobody has attempted to create a dinosaur?
What type of scientific constraints would be encountered in such a laboratory experiment?
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The science fiction book Jurassic Park and the movies based on it are about recreating dinosaurs by extracting their DNA from the guts of dinosaur-biting insects trapped in amber.
DNA is not sufficiently stable to survive for the necessary 65 million years or longer since dinosaurs roamed the Earth, so dinosaur DNA is not available. What you would do with it, if you could get it, in order to recreate dinosaurs is another issue.
The oldest DNA ever recovered was recently reported from 1.2 million year old mammoth teeth in Siberia.
It has been seriously proposed to recreate mammoths, which went extinct several thousand years ago. Mammoth DNA is available from animals preserved in permafrost.
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I consider doing research relating biomechanics to the quality of food people eat, but the methodology to access what people eat seems a strong limitation. Questionnaires/surveys seem to be the way, but the accuracy of the information may be questionable, and the reported habits may not necessarily explain the current biology of the cohort. How do you all approach investigating the quality/quantity of food intake?
I'm curious to know your thoughts!
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Another way is to utilise Computer vision /ML approaches to extract the food content, and from that, a picture of the dietary habit can be built. As an example
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Dear colleagues, our lab is having a new project in synovial fluid processing. We need filtered from all the cells SF.
Does anyone have experience in filtering the SF sample through 0.22 um filters? If it is possible to isolate the cells and keep them (maybe in case of filtering via a vacuum system, not via just syringe and filter).
One more question: what is your typical protocol to get synovial fluid cells spun?
Best regards,
Mariia, PhD in Biology, Ukraine
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Please check the following references :-
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Hi Academics,
Kindly could you clarify the meaning of the term " Researcher"?
Best.
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In my opinion, a true researcher is someone who try to find solutions for the well-being and prosperity of humanity and not to serve individual / personal interest.
That's why a good researcher should be modest, generous and have perseverance since this capacites or should I say personality traits make (in my own vision) a huge difference to qualify a person as a reserahcer since intelligence / competence alone are not enough.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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Hi everyone,
I seed MCF-7 cells (15000 cell/well) into 96-well plates using DMEM with 10% FBS. They seem equally distributed after seeding. However, after 24h incubation they kind of clump into each other and does not show their usual morphology. They just look very weird, I don't know how to describe it so please see the attached photo.They grow perfectly fine in flask with same growth medium (second photo, 24h incubation after splitting).
I do this procedure for 3 years and never had a problem like this. It would be highly appreciated if you could comment what can cause this.
Thank you
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Based on my experience, I would suggest you these points, that you may consider-
First, MCF7, growing in clumps is not an issue, but a common phenomenon. It shall depend on the density of cells. Simultaneously, I thing 15000 cells for a 96 well plate is on a higher side. You should try 7000 cells and repeat the same experiment. Let the cells settle and adhere for the 1st day, then you may start your treatment or further experiment. I have used this concentration for most of my experiments, that are published. Alternatively, you may try standardising the cell count from 5k to 15k, and use the cell density of your choice.
Secondly, I am presuming that there is no contamination and all your media constituents, pH, Incubator temperature, CO2 level, etc all are ok. You may consider analysing what exactly have changed in supplies. If any thing remarkable, like Brand of 96-well plate, new Medium, etc., consider reverting it back to that you were using initially.
And Finally and most important point is that the cells might have undergone many passages and entered Senescence Phase. Its then time to replace and discard cells and use a new stored vial or procure new lot of cells.
Try these and let me know, if it helps!!
Regards
Dr. Satyam Kumar Agrawal
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I'm looking for journals in the field of biology/ecology or on the topic of plastic pollution that publish short article types: a short communication or a natural history note for example. I have a few of these spin-off stories from my main research, which are interesting enough to publish but don't come close to a full research article. All suggestions would be welcome!
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You can check if "Microbiology resource announcement" will be good
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Is it possible to use Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Biological and Medical Sciences to search databases for potential candidate drugs/genes to solve global problems without first performing animal studies?
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We hypothesize that future generations of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies specifically adapted for biological sciences will help enable the reintegration of biology.
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Taxonomy (a branch of biology), for example, is a basic science discipline that primarily deals with the identification, classification, and nomenclature of plants. It also contributes to biodiversity and conservation. However, it has been largely overlooked in recent times due to the fact that it has been unable to grow broader impacts or, maybe, due to other emerging applied fields. This question is being posed to discuss the broader impacts of basic sciences in general, and taxonomy in particular.
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Basic science are the backbone of all advance research and technology..it will give you a proper insight for the innovative technology.for example if take aquaculture unless and until you are not able to identify the species your future research will be vain.so all basic science should be studied and then future research and enterpinersh I can be developed.
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How are "levels" of thought or processing validly seen as hierarchical? This turns out to be a very basic and important question, BECAUSE most often behavior Researcher(s) decide what is at one "level" and what is involved with another "level" and a [supposed] relationship is seen that is thought to be hierarchical (one level using the previous ones (which is fine and good), <- BUT all these "levels" are also seen subjectively). This is a damned poor way of classifying, if [supposedly] for science purposes: it is quite arbitrary and subjective (and task dependent). WHAT'S THE ANSWER?
For those who understand Piaget, the better Answer for what are hierarchical "levels" is: there is a hierarchy developing/unfolding/emerging where qualitative (big differences) in processing occur AND .... This also clearly indicates the Subject 'sees' differently .... The only strictly empirical way to account for all this is that a new "level" involves seeing more or different things or significantly seeing certain things ANEW (in a different way); all those possibilities, in Ethogram Theory, are explained by perceptual shifts (at the beginnings or inceptions of a new level). AND: This also more than strongly indicates that at each new level MORE types of objects/actions are involved.
THUS, for there to be a true empirical hierarchy, SOMETHING (_OR_ type of thing) NOT PRESENT BEFORE IS ADDED (in an objectively verifiable way).
Those who "define" hierarchies without this requirement have lost touch with empirical grounding and have lost touch with science itself. (In Psychology science (like with other real sciences): The SUBJECT, specifically BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, define ALL !; the Researcher(s) merely using his/their own imaginative thought/"analysis" DEFINES NOTHING. Try to remember that the organism, in all aspects of its behaving (including behavior (behavior patterns themselves, per se)) IS ORGANISMIC; if this does not "show", then you are off track and almost certainly in a way that will NOT SELF-CORRECT (as good science does).)
All the above is very much related to questions of concepts being concrete or "abstract" (INTEGRAL to the issue , in fact); AND, not understanding true ontogeny (cognitive development in childhood) leaves "levels of abstraction" in confusion (a pseudo-mystery, seen generously as simply [supposedly] a mystery .)
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Dear Professor, please look at this related reference.
Thank you
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Hello!
I isolated some T-cells with some very interesting TCRs from primary cultures. I sent them to Genewiz to get chromium single cell TCR sequencing done, however the sample viability was super low. I sent them 8 more vials so that they could do a dead cell removal and then isolate the live population and perform single cell sequencing on the remaining cells. The sequencing results show that whatever is left over after DCR is most likely another contaminant cell type, not a TCR. I now only have one vial left, so whatever I choose to do next is very critical and essentially has to work the first try.
At this point I dont care about chain pairing, I can piece that back together afterwards by trial and error, I just want to get some data from these cells. I was wondering if anyone knows if I can thaw my cells directly into RNA later and then do either normal NGS or another single cell sequencing method to get any info on the TCR sequences? Should I just amplify the TCR regions on thawing with some kind of primer pool and then send that for NGS? In general, what's the most robust process for getting out TCR information from low viability samples?
Some other notes:
1. I didnt personally do the T cell isolation but my thinking is they were pretty much exhausted at the time of freezing which is why we have viability issues on thawing
2. They were frozen in 10% glycerol + 10% FBS in a Mr Frosty at -80C and then maintained in LN2 and shipped on dry ice.
3. Observed viability is ~30% on thawing however this could just be the contaminant cell population....
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Definitely a fair assessment, Ive made other samples that have similar properties as this, but none of the other samples Ive generated have responded with as much vigor as this sample.
Definitely will invest in generating another panel of T-cells but from what I can tell so far, this sample had a particularly rare phenotype that i may or may not see again in a relatively limited panel size. every once in a while I remember I have this last vial and wonder if I can do anything with it, in the end its always for the birds...
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I propose the following idea.
1. attach ions to a virus
2. localize it with ion trap
3. burn a hole in the middle thus destroying DNA
4. put in water
I would like to hear both physicists and biologists? Is this possible?
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Scientists exploring the physics of the virus which facilitate to study mode of infection and vaccine prepatation while both physics and chemistry will never tell us how to design an effective vaccination programm or solve the problem of the crossing pedestrain .Recently the science events to watch for in 2022 Nature Omicron,Moon missions and particle physics are among the theme set to .....make their vavvines more affordable for lower_income countries.mor detailed in the attached ref.
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I know that several genes come one after the other under a single promoter in an operon, but what is exactly between those genes? Does the start codon of the second ORF come right after the ORF of the first gene? If there is a specific example with the dna sequence, that would be great.
Also, does an operon always require an operator?
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ORFs of eukaryotes are typically different from those of prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, mostly, genes do not come as long ORFs; they are "mixed up" with introns. Thus, providing substantially large spaces for non-coding genes (which has been demonstrated to be as high as 62% in the human genome). In bacteria, there is relatively very low non-coding DNA in the genome (approx 11%) which therefore gives in a continuous ORFs. What may be located between ORF's of two different genes, or the intergenic regions may comprise of the list succinctly put by Dr Frank Burns. It is also however, important to remember that some overlaps do occur that complicates the assessment in a single shot.
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If I have an experience but no certificate in Machine Learning, and have both experience and certifcate in Medicine (Urology) ... and want to publish a peper that include an interaction between these 2 feilds, in either Urology or CS journals. Should i add a coauthor who is certified in Data science or CS? ... if not, Would it be necessary to prove my competency in ML by any means?
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Publishing on a particular area does not require one to necessarily have a certificate in that area. However, if you find yourself to be inadequately equipped with the requisite knowledge to do a good job in that specific field, you may overcome that by collaborating with someone with that knowledge so that together you can bring out a very good and scientific work.
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The Fig2A of the paper shows that a tiling library of a gene was prepared containing 50bp fragments. The fragments span over the entire gene sequence incrementing about 7bp from each other. Later this sample was used to study the sequence dependence on DNA bendability over genome scale. This is a very interesting study but I am unable to figure out how the tiling library was prepared. Is it done by preparing a sequences for primer pool for every fragment and ordering them? Can we prepare a tiling library with any amount of spacing between them? Please let me know if you have any idea.
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Red biotechnology: This area includes medical procedures such as utilizing organisms for the production of novel drugs or employing stem cells to replace/regenerate injured tissues and possibly regenerate whole organs. It could simply be called medical biotechnology.
nuha hamid taher
Senior lecturer
Faculty of Basic Education
Mustansiriya University
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In a patient with hereditary desminopathy (mutation Thr341Pro DES in the heterozygous state) over the past three years, an increase in the blood uric acid level up to 440-480 µmol / l was established by 1.5 times (the norm is 428.4 µmol / l). With the progression of the disease, the level has risen and is above normal. It is known that uric acid is an antioxidant. Is it necessary to reduce the level of uric acid? The patient has no problems with the joints.
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The change in the level of uric acid and biochemical parameters in a patient with an identified case of desminopathy is presented in the article https://www.researchgate.net/publication/357311034_CHANGE_IN_REDOX_STATUS_AND_BIOCHEMICAL_PARAMETERS_IN_PATIENT_WITH_DESMINOPATHY_T341P_SEVERAL_YEARS_AFTER_DISEASE_SYMPTOMS_ONSET
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In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
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Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling, which are closely linked and reciprocally regulate each other, are among the well-known cancer hallmarks. Studies have reported use of Onco-metabolites to metabolically reprogram the epigenetic of cancer. I was wondering what might be major limitations of such techniques?
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Hello. This topic is not exactly my field, so I cannot give you a satisfactory answer. I will be happy to follow all the news and discussions in this field.
Regards, Zlata Felc.
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Hello.
I would like to check cell changes by culturing T cells isolated from PBMC in amino acid-rich or deficient medium. How long should I culture in rich and deficient mediums to check cell changes?
It is also a concern whether it should be cultured in rich/deficient medium from the beginning, or whether it should be cultured in normal medium at first and then moved to culture them.
I'm sorry that my English is not good! Please give me a lot of answers! :)
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Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems.
Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments.
Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change.
For example bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dariusz Prokopowicz still learning from your questions...thanks
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I want to count these fragments for image analysis of autolysis. Please suggest good software, it is so critical in my work.
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Having a background in health science I am aware that the term "interphase" is a biological one which describes a stage of cell division. Specifically it is defined as the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
This may be compared to a materials science definition for "interface" as the region formed when two phases (systems) are in contact through which the intensive properties of one phase transfer to the other.
When I would read "SEI" defined as solid electrolyte interphase in papers within my current field, I would always have a quiet giggle to myself and wonder how it gets past the editors, even in high impact publications. But I recently found myself forced to reassess my position, after digging around in foundational work on the SEI thing by Peled et al (1979). This paper has "interphase" in its title, and I believe there are peers who consider this to be the original work defining SEI. An excerpt from the paper:
It acts as an interphase between the metal and the solution and has the properties of solid electrolyte, through which electrons are not allowed to pass. Therefore, it is called "Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI)."
So the discussion is this, if these authors coined the term SEI, shouldn't it be acceptable for us as materials scientists to misappropriate "interphase" for our own purposes, and to hold our ground on it? On the other hand, what is science without clarity in our terminology? And how is "interphase" in a materials context saying anything more or less than the previously defined term "interface"?
The one thing I feel confident about is that we shouldn't be reading interchangeable definitions for the same thing, just depending on the source. Let alone seeing it arbitrarily interchanged within a single source - yes I have read individual papers where SEI is both "interphase" and "interface"...
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Hello. I received a compound with molecular weight 453.292 and the only mass information for it is 1 micromol. This is very confusing because usually chemicals have a mass in grams or milligrams. I do not know how to calculate from this. I need to make up either 10mM or 1mM of the compound. Please can someone show me your calculation for either obtaining a final concentration of 10mM or 1mM (please show calculations for both, as i havent decided which one to make yet), how much DMSO I will need to use. Thank you
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I agree with dr.John Machell,it’s far a away from my speciality.
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I am carrying out a research on science self efficacy and meta variables as correlates of biology achievement among secondary school students
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This thread is for those who want to know how to calculate Research Interest (RI) and participate in this validation study. *** Welcome to the validation study of my formula for Research Interest (RI) on the RG site! Details are in the first reply in this discussion.
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We know that the brain sends and directs meaningful messages to control the patient's cells.
as we know, The brain is affected by factors such as diseases And we know that the brain also controls other organs of the body.nevertheless,Damage to the CELLS is visible on eeg?
Is Cancer Effective In EEG?
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Stomach cancer is cancer that may affect any part of the stomach and extend to the esophagus or small intestine, and it causes the death of nearly one million people annually. It is more prevalent in Korea, Japan, England and South America. It is more prevalent among men than women. It is associated with eating too much salt, smoking, and also low intake of fruits and vegetables. Therefore, it is believed that its spread in countries such as Korea and Japan is due to the consumption of salted fish mainly by Koreans and Japanese, as well as the use of canned food and food preservatives. Mucosal colonization of H. pylori is believed to be the main risk factor in about 80% of stomach cancers
Stomach cancer is diagnosed through an endoscopic examination that allows a biopsy to be extracted from the affected tissue, and then analyzed to confirm the presence of a tumor. Dr. Riccardo Rosati, a specialist in gastroenterology at San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, says, "Before undergoing treatment, the patient needs to do a series of other ultrasound and other examinations to check the areas, glands and organs covered by the disease, in order to determine the degree of its progression.
As a researcher, I believe that stomach cancer cells do not send messages to the brain due to the lack of associated neurons
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I'm doing a research project where we are testing different methods of fluorescent live/dead stains and we need to kill some strawberry and potato roots so we can stain them. The only method we know will work well is boiling them in 70-80 degree water, have any other ideas?
thanks!
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Starting to boil in a waterbath or autoclaving are two options for heat treatment. This is the section of the operation that requires the most improvement. Only 15 minutes of autoclaving (without preceding KOH immersion) is required for greenhouse-grown plant roots that are ~4 weeks old. Adventitious roots that are 1 centimeter in size and ~3 months old must be soaked overnight and autoclaved for 60 minutes. Multiple soakings and more than one hour in the autoclave may be required for some tissues. The time it takes to boil something is usually longer than the time it takes to autoclave it.
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Context: Biology, Anticancer, Cell Signaling, Medicinal Chemistry, Apoptosis
Your answers are highly appreciated! Thank you!
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You can try to check Bioorganic Chemistry and Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. wishing you all the best
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How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Roman Bohdan Hołyński,
Thank you for your response. Yes, of course population growth has been going fast for hundreds of years. This issue has been pointed out since the beginning of the first industrial revolution in the 17th and 18th centuries. We now have the fourth technological revolution, the problem is many times larger and still the same questions. Until now, technological progress, including in the field of new technologies increasing the efficiency of agricultural production, has solved the problem of feeding the rapidly growing population. On the other hand, however, in the least developed countries, the scale of poverty and food shortage is becoming a rapidly growing problem. In addition, climate change causing droughts, forest fires, soil barrenness, pest infestations etc. exacerbate these problems. Until recently, technological progress seemed to solve the key problems of the development of civilization. However, in recent years there has been more and more evidence to challenge this thesis. If the process of global warming accelerates in the next decades, the above problems will quickly worsen and the technological progress will become insufficient to solve them. Therefore, our view on this issue is very similar.
Thank you very much,
Best regards, Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Introduce a database that predicts lncRNA and gene(mRNA) interactions. Thanks
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Hello Mehrdad Rostami,
you may try this tool, looks fine, but works only for human and mouse:
Further tools available (not limited to specific organisms) are below:
Hope this help,
Martin
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Teaching biology.
Practices and strategies in teaching biology. 
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Danilo Rogayan Jr. There is a online paper available on this topic and Structure Matters yes and the papers says all about the same
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Usually in our university we recommend the book of Schoonhoven et al., 2005 "Insect-Plant Biology", and of Karban, 2015 "plant sensing and communication", however, this year we are looking for any other recent good books published on these topics.
Please could you know some?
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Thank you for your suggestions. Chemical Ecology of Insects by Jun Tabata appears to be a relevant book.
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A performance task? A standardized test? Or some other means? Why?
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A question that needs more thought
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During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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there are various bioinformatics tools that show the patients' mortality rate related to gene expression such as prognoscan! if you know other bioinformatics platforms or approaches please let me know!!!
regards
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Dear Dr Mohammed,
I also suggest you to read these recent articles:
Best regards,
Pr Hambaba
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I'd love to see a rough sketch of how the task would go.
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  1. Give students raw data and ask them to write an argument or analysis based on the data.
  2. Have students explore and write about unfamiliar points of view or “what if” situations.
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During promotion application, there seems to have increasing emphasis not only on the impact factor of the journal you publish, but also its RANK in a particular field. Does it affect your choice of which journal you submit your work (as an example, a journal with a JIF of 9 can be regarded as top 5 percentile in the category of "Biology" but only top 20 percentile in "Cell Biology")?
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Dear Dr Kwok-On Lai ,
You have underlined a very important point, and personally I think that the impact factor / citation index of a specific journal does not always refer to its quality. For example, you may encounter many journals with an impact factor >10, but the quality isn't always present.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
Please reply
Best wishes
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In my opinion, in recent years, the possibilities and needs of using new information technologies, ICT, Internet, Industry 4.0 in the field of improving nature protection systems have been growing. For example, these technologies can be combined with satellite analytics of changes in the state of biodiversity of natural ecosystems, changes in the level of pollution of the natural environment and other types of impact of civilization development on nature.
I invite you to the discussion,
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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how do you understand life as it is really big suspense, why we are here, our consciousness is big unconsciousness and our unconsciousness big consciousness.
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My philosophy in life is to treat people as you would like them to treat you, help others as much as possible, worship God as much as possible, and everything you do will pay off for you.
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I think this is the most difficult and interesting question in the biology. I don't think that this great secret will be ever solved scientifically ! Since unsolvable until now by any means therefore this question can also be considered as the main question of biologic philosophy !
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The question is perfect, but as we know the theories of evolution and finally the formation of a primitive type of cell from the nonliving materials first in the dark liquid area. Once the first cell formed after that only the concept of Omnis cellula e cellular is applicable...
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Hello, I am currently an undergraduate student at Purdue. I am currently looking at potential research topics to get into during graduate school. Right now I work in a botany lab studying ABA levels in deciduous trees. However, in my own free time, I have been obsessed with the interaction between tree species through different mycorrhizal networks. I have a decent list of researchers working on this topic (I will put their names below), but I was wondering if there are any schools or individuals I should strongly consider and reach out to before applying.
1. Rolf Geisen (Max Rubner-Institut, Germany)
2. Marc Stadler (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany)
3. John Pitt (Australia)
4. Jens Frisvad (Technical University of Denmark)
5. Vit Hubka (Charles University Prague, Czech)
6. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences http://english.im.cas.cn/rh/rd/Mycology1/
8. Dr. Catherine Aime (Purdue University)
9. Songlin Fei (Purdue University)
10. Peter Kennedy (University of Minnesota)
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Ectomycorrhizae have many differences from Endomycorrhizae. Each one has it's own mode of action with the plant root which related with.
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Dear everyone,
We know that in human and animals, diet cupric ions (Cu2+) are reduced to the cuprous form (Cu+) by the metalloreductase six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate member 1 (STEAP1) and then absorbed by enterocytes via a specific transporter (CTR1). But I really don't know why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes? In addition, I would like to know whether lithium will be absorbed by any cells in human body?
My knowledge of biology is very scarce. I implore any biology or medical experts to answer this questions. Thank you!
Best wish to everyone who sees this question
Junhang Dong
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Dear Junhang Dong thank you for posting this very interesting technical question which is really several questions in one. For the question why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes I would like to suggest to you the potentially useful reference cited below. It is outlined there that on the one hand micronutrients such as zinc, copper, and iron are essential for our life because they serve as cofactors for a large number of different proteins. However, the other hand, these transition metal ions can be toxic to cell growth when they are taken up in excess. This is the reason why all organisms developed mechanisms to strictly regulate the heavy metal ion levels. Please have a look at this paper:
Cellular sensing and transport of metal ions: implications in micronutrient homeostasis
Unfortunately this article has not yet been posted by the author as public full text on RG. However, the author has an RG profile (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amanda-Bird-2). Thus there is a good chance that you can request the full text directly from her.
I hope this answers part of your question. Good luck wth your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Higher affinity for CO induce suffocation which may be fatal.
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In agreement with Pranita Kamble Waghmare, the Oxygen axis after oxygen binding with heme is at an angle while Carbon monoxide binds to free heme with the CO axis perpendicular to the plane of the porphyrin ring via carbon-Iron bonding. So, the two oxygen atoms in oxygen exhibit steric hindrances on each other. In which case, CO doesn't experience the same.
This perpendicular orientation is favorable for Hb binding.
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I know that an infant's brain can repair itself when damaged but why doesn't the same happen in adults after stroke or brain injuries?
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With Regenerative Medicine, using stem cells, the ongoing Programs are doing it, with good results and promising expectations.
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I want to encode Network packets (Commands & Attributes) using DNA sequence, but I want to map those network commands into a meaningful featured DNA sequence by the meaning of finally when you see the encoded network command, each codon has logical relationship with successive one, beside each codon needs to refer to existing Amino Acid.
Can we build DNA sequence that contains features rather than just letters (A,G,C,T) sequenced randomly beside each other? Does this have reference in Biology, what is your thought in this?
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George Church recorded an entire book, including illustrations, as a DNA sequence. Perhaps you can use his approach.
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Say a researcher was interested in determining the number of adults vs. juveniles of species X trapped during a small mammal survey. Does there exist a relatively reliable way of doing this based on standard field measurements?
Let’s say a total of 200 individuals of species X were sampled, and the following data recorded: sex, total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, and weight. For the sake of this question imagine no additional data is available (e.g. additional observations recorded in the field, access to collected specimen material, etc.).
  1. Is there a way to ascertain a point or “threshold” from a range of data based on the distribution of values to distinguish between juvenile and adult individuals with a meaningful degree of accuracy? For example, male species X with weight > 142 g = adults; < 142 g = juveniles.
  2. If yes, which of these measurements would be most indicative? Or perhaps a combination/ratio of more than one (e.g. ratio of hind foot length to ear height > 1 = adult, etc.)?
Thanks, and looking forward to the feedback.
Evan
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Search :
Crouched Locomotion in Small Mammals: The Effects of Habitat and Aging
by Angela M Horner (2010)
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This picture is collected from a rice field which is heavily infected by sheath blight disease. Rice sheath is completely blighted due to this disease. The structure is formed on blighted and dried rice sheath. I have never seen such type of structure before. Could you please help me identify the structure from attached picture?
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Thank you Yuriy Kotlyar for your comment.
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Another way of phrasing this question would be: Is there a chance that a transformed plasmid with homologous sequences does not recombine with the chromosomal DNA? If so, will a cell still be selected due to the plasmid vector containing the selectable marker? Accordingly, if previous statements are true, would one have to run multiple samples through a gel and select the colony without the plasmid (my guess)?
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I have constructed several mutants in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa using the allele replacement techniques (double recombination). The plasmids I used had a temperature-sensitive origin of replication, so when you shift the temperature you get rid of the plasmids and conserved the clones with recombined fragments.
However, even when you think you had got rid of the plasmid, you need to screen several clones with PCR to identify the good clones because the plasmid in some clones mutate and become resistant to temperature. Even when you don't use this approach of temperature-sensitive plasmid, you need to screen with PCR to identify the good clones that have the recombinant fragment and not the plasmid.
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In my opinion, the issue of ecology should be added or extended to educational programs, including issues related to greenhouse gas emissions, faster global warming process, indispensability of implementation and development of ecological energy innovations based on renewable energy sources, improvement of degraded reclamation techniques civilization of the natural environment, sorting garbage, recycling, the need to reduce the use of plastic in product packaging, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should the scope of environmental education in schools be increased?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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''Education and communication are vitally important in order to impress each individual of his or her responsibility regarding the healthy future of the Earth. The best way for students to recognize that their action can make a difference is to have projects organized by the school or community on which the students can work. Once convinced that they can help, people tend to change both their attitude and their behavior. New attitudes towards the environment will be reflected in decisions at home and in corporate boardrooms around the world.''
--Vanessa Allison
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Hello, research community,
I am looking for some open problems in bioinformatics specifically in the area of, but not limited to, proteomics, and genomics. Since I am new to this area, any useful suggestions, a discussion on open problems and relevant resources are welcome.
Thanks.
Rahul
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examples:
Protein structure prediction
single cell RNA/DNA unsupervised learning/clustering
correlation of gene expression & variation with clinical outcomes
many more open problems tbh
e.g. see DeepVariant by google research
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Hello all,
I am attempting to determine the concentration of B. diminuta bacteria in an inoculated broth after 24 hours at 30 C on a shaking incubator by performing a spot plate of diluted samples and back calculating the original concentration. When I perform this, I am consistently getting very high CFU/mL values of approx. 1x10^11 CFU/mL. Can someone look over my experiment and tell me if I am making an error somewhere or is this value correct?
1) Inoculate 500 mL of Saline Lactose broth with inoculating loop dipped in pre-prepared glycerol stock of B. diminuta. Incubate on shaking incubator for 24 hrs. at 110 rpm.
2) Make eight 10x serial dilutions from 10^-1 to 10^-8 using 5 mL in 45 mL peptone water (1 g/L).
3) Plate 20 uL of each dilution in duplicate on Tryptic Soy Agar plates, allow to dry for approx. 5 minutes, and place in static incubator upside down for 18-24 hours or until colonies are visible for count.
4) Count the average # of colonies per dilution and calculate the CFU/mL using the following calculation: CFU per ml = Average number of colonies for a dilution x 50 x dilution factor.
Example: 10^-8 dilution average colonies: 19, (19 x 50 x 10^-8) = 9.5 x 10^10 CFU/mL.
Thank you for any assistance you can offer
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As Michael said, 10E11 cfu/ml seems well beyond what one would expect.
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Hi, I'm an undergraduate majoring in biology. I'm passionate about molecular cell biology (basically anything inside Bruce Alberts molecular cell biology) and was wondering, what are the big question in this field that has not been discovered? are there still unknown molecular mechanism that needs to be studied?
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Hi. There are still 5 things we don't know about cells. See the link below to have full details:
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Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
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Also to defeat fear, you must program your mind. Mind preparation is a strategy to defeat fear.Tell yourself you can do it. Don't limit yourself, you will be amaze what you can do when you program your mind.
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I read this report that 3% (v/v) Ethanol increases recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. The SDS PAGE gels seem pretty convincing (1).
However, assuming I get great expression of recombinant protein with 3% (v/v) Ethanol, how am I supposed to decontaminate the biohazardous cell waste from the experiment?
Bleach decontamination isn't a good idea because bleach would react with the ethanol.
Autoclave decontamination isn't a good idea because ethanol is flammable.
Is safety just not a priority?
Source:
1) Chhetri G, Kalita P, Tripathi T. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli. MethodsX. 2015;2:385-391. Published 2015 Oct 8. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2015.09.005
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Hi Adron Ung . The reactions of bleach and ethanol I have seen contain at least 70% ethanol. I'm skeptical that 3% ethanol + bleach could cause significant production of dangerous chemicals.
But you can always keep the 3% ethanol + bleach waste in a fume hood overnight just to be on the safe side.
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Hi All, I am working with A549 cell line and trying to culture spheroids using low attachment 96 well plates. So far I have attempted some different seeding densities from 2000 to 10,000 cells and can either form very large spheroids (700-900um), which are more compact and have a spherical defined shape, or alternatively smaller spheroids (still fairly big though around 500um) are less compact and not completely spherical. However for my experiment where I wish to add drug compounds (2D IC50 approx 1uM) I am not observing significant size/morphology change on the larger spheroids despite at least a 10uM concentration for 1 week. I am thinking possibly I can try to treat smaller spheroids for a more obvious visual change. Does anyone know how i might successfully make small compact spheroids (less than 500um) which are reproducible with this cell line? Thanks in advance for any help someone may be able to provide.
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Hi Sophie, I have worked with this cell line and also for spheroid formation in my Ph.D. thesis, So I suggested you control the cell number when you going to seed in 96 well, this in turn leads to control the size of the spheroid, however, if you use microfluidics or lab on chip systems you can generate a huge number of the spheroid in one chip and also control the size of the spheroid, one of the main factor in drug screening studies (larger than 400 um in size spheroid are not suitable as the cells in core zone can not access to nutrients and drug and also they are under hypoxia),
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Hello everyone. Can someone please tell me, is there any database of research projects from where I may get details of various ongoing or completed projects?
Thank you very much!
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I interesting in the biology of fish now, have some things, I don't understand about maturity fish. How do we know or make sure that the L50 assessment is really mature fish if not using the GSI method? please
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Good question...
As someone pointed out clearly, histology of gonads can be used to see whether fish is matured or not. But again, the question comes why you want to see the maturity in fish? Do you want to do any experiments or want to do some breeding trials? If your interest is to do the breeding, then try to notice the body colour and behavioural patterns. In general, most fish exhibits a change in body colour when they get matured; but again depends on the species...
Hope my answer is useful...Good luck!
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Hi,
I and working on a project for extraterrestrial life, and i need few work on the titled topic. If is there any data, recommend it or please discuss the evaluation mechanism.
Thank you,
Muhammad Furqan Ali
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You can search for the following articles: National Environmental and Natural Resources Information System Environment and Temperature Report, light, atmosphere, wind
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The bacteria contains two megaplasmids, one of which is 233kb. Using a Qiagen miniprep kit with spin columns, is it possible to elute even a small amount of DNA this large? Are there any modifications to be made which do not involve obtaining the anion-exchange kits designed for large constructs?
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Dear Sam,
I emphasize my colleague Philips answer.
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Biology Experimental, Theretical and Philisophical question.
Might contribute to understanding the unicellular organisms source and properties.
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we believe the DNA comes from originally proteins or catalytic RNA which means it may act for themselves. the carbon baswe molecule was prefered for instability and flexibility,however it is still a mystery why would all be made of carbon(there are interesting theories on why we have a collision of two planets which are becoming separate and may be wby it is of carbon. Mainly a question on probability. Could it be a high probability on carbon source?). this self acting molecule, protein/catalytic RNA, which is tve basic unit of making proteins in eukaryotes and not on procaryotes. we think the origin of virus comes from this point,but we are still unsure of it. the molecule a triangle of carbon is the origin of all carbon forms of life,but we are still unsure on why the steps are as it is. this molecule of rna and protein. comes from the cooling and veating of the primitive atmosphere, which combined the elements as it is. experiments have been made to prove frankestein in the 1900, and resulted in a very high coincidence. the balances (and very ineficient) forms of energy made first the plants and then the animals, the more complex the longer it took. the triangle of carbon adapted to make the famous bonds of 4 of the life molecule. the self acting molecule (which made possible the vaccine of moderna of covid) is made from the experiment of frankeistein. the combination and likelyhood of carbon molecules and the balances in energy made the protein/rna and later on the bacteria/plant. the most primitive form of energy is a short version of the glucose molecule, but there was an explosion of energy, and the plants staeted to populate the earth,leaving the rest of bacteria to small and imposible areas to live. the primitive choloroplast comes from cianobqcteria which have been fused by the theory of lynn margulis. the same of the mitochondria. horizantal transfer of genetic material. the rest of the species survive by the theory of charles darwin. the plants filled the atmosohere with oxygen, it requires more energy but it is more efficient. the rest of the acellular agents,prions, siRNA, viriods,virioids,comes from the mix of rna/protein,which means it can act by themselves. we speculate venus was rhe best planet for life and the next one,mars. we are unsure of the storm (the red spot)in jupiter are the balances of energy on earth.
why do we think the only life on earth is the only way of life,and why do we rhink life is impossible if not as it is?
I hope this clears anything
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We're working with the lovely garden eels: snake-like fishes that live in big colonies, attached to the sandy sea bottom. They feed on plankton and hide in their burrows whenever something big approaches. Here's a small video of them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2WEkd9qMlw
To test whether they're using social information in their evasive behaviour, we found an edge of the colony and, after satying put for 3 minutes to ensure they were not hiding at that point, one of us slowly approached until the first eel retracted. We marked that point as our zero. Then, we marked the positions where the closest and farthest eels hide. We then measured the distances between our zero and the closest (Ri), and farthest (R1) points.
Now, our null hypothesis is that if Ri and R1 are equal, the information (the evasive behaviour) is not spreading, and therefore there's no use of social information. Our H1, then, is that if information is spreading, R1 > Ri. As every pair of R1 and Ri was taken at the same time, respect to the same point of reference (zero), and our data did not pass the Shapiro normality test, we're considering a paired Wilcoxon test. Is this appropiate? Our sample size is 68.
Thank you in advance.
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Yes, the wilcoxon test is appropriate for matched pairs of non-normally distributed data.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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Dear Bharath Setturu,
Thank you for the link to the interesting publication provided:
My Village Biodiversity: Documentation of Western Ghats Biodiversity through Network of Students and Teachers.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The lock and key theory on enzymes has shortcomings because it is unable to explain the stability of the enzyme when the enzyme reaction points are switched, then the induction theory is able to answer the shortcomings of the padlock theory. So, does the theory of induction fit actually have flaws? If so, what are the shortcomings of induction fit theory? And of the two theories, which one theory better explains how enzymes work? Thank you.
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In the lock-and-key model, the enzyme-substrate interaction suggests that the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another. Like a key into a lock, only the correct size and shape of the substrate (the key) would fit into the active site (the keyhole) of the enzyme (the lock). It shows the high specificity of enzymes. However, it does not explain the stabilization of the transition state that the enzymes achieve. The induced-fit model suggests that the active site continues to change until the substrate is completely bound to the active site of the enzyme, at which point the final shape and charge are determined. Unlike the lock-and-key model, the induced fit model shows that enzymes are rather flexible structures.