Questions related to Biology
1. You use Material 1 in Biology and after using it, you recycle it in Chemistry to come up with Material 2.
2. You use Material 1 in Biology and then its product is used in Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science.
3. Or any related activities that make use of similar or related ideas.
If you can share also your related studies, I highly appreciate it. Thanks!
Like I want to prepare a senior secondary Biology Subject curriculum block for instruction.
I need the block format, the contents examples etc
As far as I know it has been dismissed as a closed cased of the history of science having no defenders left. However, that's not the feeling I get when the issue comes up in private discussions. I'm wondering if I have missed something, and if and how vitalism (or some refined modern form of it) is still considered to be a viable option by some biologists?
Most biologists and philosophers understand vitalism as the doctrine of the entelechy, originally proposed by the German biologist Hans Driesch in the early twentieth century. According to Driesch, entelechies were nonmaterial, bio-specific agents responsible for governing a few peculiar biological phenomena. Current attitudes towards vitalism and the doctrine of the entelechy are almost universally negative. Numerous biologists and philosophers today endorse this metaphysical refutation of vitalism. For them, since all events and processes in the world, from the metaphysical point of view, must be identical or reducible to some material (or physical) events and processes, there is no room for nonmaterial agents such as entelechies. The addition of the information instead of the concept of entelechy will change the perspective on vitalism.,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Thank you and kind regards,
Can you please suggest what could be the possible reasons for the confirmation of only 4 out of 13 genes (by qPCR), not all 13? Have anyone observed the same ChIP-qPCR validation issues? Any PubMed suggestion would be great. Thank you for your help in advance.
For thinking - in regard to overtaking "believes, dogmas"
Blind adoption of believes, dogmas by people in populations (Psychology of the Crowd, by Gustave Le Bon) seems to be psychologically coupled and physically from a social scientific point of view explainable:
here, too, synchronization within masses occurs
- and it seems also in accordance to the Kuramoto model.
For this, only a corresponding marketing strategy, seems to be necessary (applied maths / physics).
Basis: Yoshiki Kuramoto assumed in 1975 that there is a weak relationship (better coupling) of oscillating systems (oscillators) and that these are almost identical. Kuramoto found that mathematically between each pair of coupled oscillators, their interaction is sinusoidally dependent on the respective phase difference, resulting into the so-called *Kuramoto Model* This even can be illustrated using initially non-synchronous metronomes, which in the course (under certain conditions: moveable surface) synchronize themselves.
This even seems a basic model in nature, biology, chemistry, physics and/or social sciences: – synchronizing of coupled systems:
– collective flasing of fireflies [Buck 1988]
– collective oscillation of pancreatic beta cells [Sherman 1991]
– the heartbeat synchronized with ventilation [Schäfer 1998]
– pedestrian induced oscillations on bridges [Strogatz 2005]
-Kuramoto, Yoshiki (1975) Self-entrainment of a population of coupled non-linear oscillators. In: Araki H (eds.) International Symposium on Mathematical Problems in Theoretical Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, Volume 39, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/BFb0013365.
-Buck J (1988) Synchronous rhythmic flashing of fireflies, IIi. Q Rev Biol (63)3), 265–289. DOI: 10.1086/415929.
-Sherman A, Rinzel J (1991) Model for synchronization of pancreatic betacells by gap junction coupling. Biophysical journal 59(3), 547–559. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(91)82271-8.
-Schäfer C, Rosenblum MG, Kurths J, Abel HH (1998) Heartbeat synchronized with ventilation, Nature 392(6673), 239–240. DOI: 10.1038/32567.
-Strogatz SH, Abrams DM, McRobie A, Eckhardt B, Ott E (2005) Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the millennium bridge, Nature 438(7064), 43–44. DOI: 10.1038/43843a.
Credit 'spontaneous synchronization of metronomes' video
#psychology #synchronization #nature #physics #chemistry #biology
Kindly discuss your ideas and viewpoints on the origin of life and the RNA world hypothesis.
What are the contradictory views on why researchers are still unsure about the origin of life through RNA or such analogous molecular intermediate pre-cursors preceding its existence?
"The general notion of an “RNA World” is that, in the early development of life on the Earth, genetic continuity was assured by the replication of RNA and genetically encoded proteins were not involved as catalysts. There is now strong evidence indicating that an RNA World did indeed exist before DNA- and protein-based life. However, arguments regarding whether life on Earth began with RNA are more tenuous. It might be imagined that all of the components of RNA were available in some prebiotic pool and that these components assembled into replicating, evolving polynucleotides without the prior existence of any evolved macromolecules. A thorough consideration of this “RNA-first” view of the origin of life must reconcile concerns regarding the intractable mixtures that are obtained in experiments designed to simulate the chemistry of the primitive Earth. Perhaps these concerns will eventually be resolved, and recent experimental findings provide some reason for optimism. However, the problem of the origin of the RNA World is far from being solved, and it is fruitful to consider the alternative possibility that RNA was preceded by some other replicating, evolving molecule, just as DNA and proteins were preceded by RNA." - Robertson and Joyce
[This is as per the explanation by Michael P Robertson and Gerald F Joyce in the article: "The origins of the RNA world." published in the Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 4, a003608 (2012).]
The scientific community must resolve this contradicting conjecture through rational discussion and debate backed by strong experimental evidence on what must be the pre-cursor molecule to the Origin of Life if it is not RNA!
Yesterday I have read a news stating that The embryo fossil, nicknamed “Baby Yingliang,” was discovered in Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province in southern China, and is believed to be at least 66 million years old. Researcher Dr. Fion Waisum Ma told the AFP news agency that the discovery is “the best dinosaur embryo ever found in history” (globalnews, 2021).
Although there were several discoveries of Dinosaur components such as:
DNAs from thier remains
are frequently being discovered, Since the biotechnology development is in its Zenith at 2022, Why nobody has attempted to create a dinosaur?
What type of scientific constraints would be encountered in such a laboratory experiment?
I consider doing research relating biomechanics to the quality of food people eat, but the methodology to access what people eat seems a strong limitation. Questionnaires/surveys seem to be the way, but the accuracy of the information may be questionable, and the reported habits may not necessarily explain the current biology of the cohort. How do you all approach investigating the quality/quantity of food intake?
I'm curious to know your thoughts!
Dear colleagues, our lab is having a new project in synovial fluid processing. We need filtered from all the cells SF.
Does anyone have experience in filtering the SF sample through 0.22 um filters? If it is possible to isolate the cells and keep them (maybe in case of filtering via a vacuum system, not via just syringe and filter).
One more question: what is your typical protocol to get synovial fluid cells spun?
Mariia, PhD in Biology, Ukraine
I seed MCF-7 cells (15000 cell/well) into 96-well plates using DMEM with 10% FBS. They seem equally distributed after seeding. However, after 24h incubation they kind of clump into each other and does not show their usual morphology. They just look very weird, I don't know how to describe it so please see the attached photo.They grow perfectly fine in flask with same growth medium (second photo, 24h incubation after splitting).
I do this procedure for 3 years and never had a problem like this. It would be highly appreciated if you could comment what can cause this.
I'm looking for journals in the field of biology/ecology or on the topic of plastic pollution that publish short article types: a short communication or a natural history note for example. I have a few of these spin-off stories from my main research, which are interesting enough to publish but don't come close to a full research article. All suggestions would be welcome!
Taxonomy (a branch of biology), for example, is a basic science discipline that primarily deals with the identification, classification, and nomenclature of plants. It also contributes to biodiversity and conservation. However, it has been largely overlooked in recent times due to the fact that it has been unable to grow broader impacts or, maybe, due to other emerging applied fields. This question is being posed to discuss the broader impacts of basic sciences in general, and taxonomy in particular.
How are "levels" of thought or processing validly seen as hierarchical? This turns out to be a very basic and important question, BECAUSE most often behavior Researcher(s) decide what is at one "level" and what is involved with another "level" and a [supposed] relationship is seen that is thought to be hierarchical (one level using the previous ones (which is fine and good), <- BUT all these "levels" are also seen subjectively). This is a damned poor way of classifying, if [supposedly] for science purposes: it is quite arbitrary and subjective (and task dependent). WHAT'S THE ANSWER?
For those who understand Piaget, the better Answer for what are hierarchical "levels" is: there is a hierarchy developing/unfolding/emerging where qualitative (big differences) in processing occur AND .... This also clearly indicates the Subject 'sees' differently .... The only strictly empirical way to account for all this is that a new "level" involves seeing more or different things or significantly seeing certain things ANEW (in a different way); all those possibilities, in Ethogram Theory, are explained by perceptual shifts (at the beginnings or inceptions of a new level). AND: This also more than strongly indicates that at each new level MORE types of objects/actions are involved.
THUS, for there to be a true empirical hierarchy, SOMETHING (_OR_ type of thing) NOT PRESENT BEFORE IS ADDED (in an objectively verifiable way).
Those who "define" hierarchies without this requirement have lost touch with empirical grounding and have lost touch with science itself. (In Psychology science (like with other real sciences): The SUBJECT, specifically BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, define ALL !; the Researcher(s) merely using his/their own imaginative thought/"analysis" DEFINES NOTHING. Try to remember that the organism, in all aspects of its behaving (including behavior (behavior patterns themselves, per se)) IS ORGANISMIC; if this does not "show", then you are off track and almost certainly in a way that will NOT SELF-CORRECT (as good science does).)
All the above is very much related to questions of concepts being concrete or "abstract" (INTEGRAL to the issue , in fact); AND, not understanding true ontogeny (cognitive development in childhood) leaves "levels of abstraction" in confusion (a pseudo-mystery, seen generously as simply [supposedly] a mystery .)
I isolated some T-cells with some very interesting TCRs from primary cultures. I sent them to Genewiz to get chromium single cell TCR sequencing done, however the sample viability was super low. I sent them 8 more vials so that they could do a dead cell removal and then isolate the live population and perform single cell sequencing on the remaining cells. The sequencing results show that whatever is left over after DCR is most likely another contaminant cell type, not a TCR. I now only have one vial left, so whatever I choose to do next is very critical and essentially has to work the first try.
At this point I dont care about chain pairing, I can piece that back together afterwards by trial and error, I just want to get some data from these cells. I was wondering if anyone knows if I can thaw my cells directly into RNA later and then do either normal NGS or another single cell sequencing method to get any info on the TCR sequences? Should I just amplify the TCR regions on thawing with some kind of primer pool and then send that for NGS? In general, what's the most robust process for getting out TCR information from low viability samples?
Some other notes:
1. I didnt personally do the T cell isolation but my thinking is they were pretty much exhausted at the time of freezing which is why we have viability issues on thawing
2. They were frozen in 10% glycerol + 10% FBS in a Mr Frosty at -80C and then maintained in LN2 and shipped on dry ice.
3. Observed viability is ~30% on thawing however this could just be the contaminant cell population....
I know that several genes come one after the other under a single promoter in an operon, but what is exactly between those genes? Does the start codon of the second ORF come right after the ORF of the first gene? If there is a specific example with the dna sequence, that would be great.
Also, does an operon always require an operator?
If I have an experience but no certificate in Machine Learning, and have both experience and certifcate in Medicine (Urology) ... and want to publish a peper that include an interaction between these 2 feilds, in either Urology or CS journals. Should i add a coauthor who is certified in Data science or CS? ... if not, Would it be necessary to prove my competency in ML by any means?
The Fig2A of the paper shows that a tiling library of a gene was prepared containing 50bp fragments. The fragments span over the entire gene sequence incrementing about 7bp from each other. Later this sample was used to study the sequence dependence on DNA bendability over genome scale. This is a very interesting study but I am unable to figure out how the tiling library was prepared. Is it done by preparing a sequences for primer pool for every fragment and ordering them? Can we prepare a tiling library with any amount of spacing between them? Please let me know if you have any idea.
In a patient with hereditary desminopathy (mutation Thr341Pro DES in the heterozygous state) over the past three years, an increase in the blood uric acid level up to 440-480 µmol / l was established by 1.5 times (the norm is 428.4 µmol / l). With the progression of the disease, the level has risen and is above normal. It is known that uric acid is an antioxidant. Is it necessary to reduce the level of uric acid? The patient has no problems with the joints.
In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling, which are closely linked and reciprocally regulate each other, are among the well-known cancer hallmarks. Studies have reported use of Onco-metabolites to metabolically reprogram the epigenetic of cancer. I was wondering what might be major limitations of such techniques?
I would like to check cell changes by culturing T cells isolated from PBMC in amino acid-rich or deficient medium. How long should I culture in rich and deficient mediums to check cell changes?
It is also a concern whether it should be cultured in rich/deficient medium from the beginning, or whether it should be cultured in normal medium at first and then moved to culture them.
I'm sorry that my English is not good! Please give me a lot of answers! :)
Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems.
Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments.
Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change.
For example bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I want to count these fragments for image analysis of autolysis. Please suggest good software, it is so critical in my work.
Having a background in health science I am aware that the term "interphase" is a biological one which describes a stage of cell division. Specifically it is defined as the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
This may be compared to a materials science definition for "interface" as the region formed when two phases (systems) are in contact through which the intensive properties of one phase transfer to the other.
When I would read "SEI" defined as solid electrolyte interphase in papers within my current field, I would always have a quiet giggle to myself and wonder how it gets past the editors, even in high impact publications. But I recently found myself forced to reassess my position, after digging around in foundational work on the SEI thing by Peled et al (1979). This paper has "interphase" in its title, and I believe there are peers who consider this to be the original work defining SEI. An excerpt from the paper:
It acts as an interphase between the metal and the solution and has the properties of solid electrolyte, through which electrons are not allowed to pass. Therefore, it is called "Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI)."
So the discussion is this, if these authors coined the term SEI, shouldn't it be acceptable for us as materials scientists to misappropriate "interphase" for our own purposes, and to hold our ground on it? On the other hand, what is science without clarity in our terminology? And how is "interphase" in a materials context saying anything more or less than the previously defined term "interface"?
The one thing I feel confident about is that we shouldn't be reading interchangeable definitions for the same thing, just depending on the source. Let alone seeing it arbitrarily interchanged within a single source - yes I have read individual papers where SEI is both "interphase" and "interface"...
Hello. I received a compound with molecular weight 453.292 and the only mass information for it is 1 micromol. This is very confusing because usually chemicals have a mass in grams or milligrams. I do not know how to calculate from this. I need to make up either 10mM or 1mM of the compound. Please can someone show me your calculation for either obtaining a final concentration of 10mM or 1mM (please show calculations for both, as i havent decided which one to make yet), how much DMSO I will need to use. Thank you
I am carrying out a research on science self efficacy and meta variables as correlates of biology achievement among secondary school students
This thread is for those who want to know how to calculate Research Interest (RI) and participate in this validation study. *** Welcome to the validation study of my formula for Research Interest (RI) on the RG site! Details are in the first reply in this discussion.
We know that the brain sends and directs meaningful messages to control the patient's cells.
as we know, The brain is affected by factors such as diseases And we know that the brain also controls other organs of the body.nevertheless,Damage to the CELLS is visible on eeg?
Is Cancer Effective In EEG?
I'm doing a research project where we are testing different methods of fluorescent live/dead stains and we need to kill some strawberry and potato roots so we can stain them. The only method we know will work well is boiling them in 70-80 degree water, have any other ideas?
Context: Biology, Anticancer, Cell Signaling, Medicinal Chemistry, Apoptosis
Your answers are highly appreciated! Thank you!
How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Usually in our university we recommend the book of Schoonhoven et al., 2005 "Insect-Plant Biology", and of Karban, 2015 "plant sensing and communication", however, this year we are looking for any other recent good books published on these topics.
Please could you know some?
During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
there are various bioinformatics tools that show the patients' mortality rate related to gene expression such as prognoscan! if you know other bioinformatics platforms or approaches please let me know!!!
During promotion application, there seems to have increasing emphasis not only on the impact factor of the journal you publish, but also its RANK in a particular field. Does it affect your choice of which journal you submit your work (as an example, a journal with a JIF of 9 can be regarded as top 5 percentile in the category of "Biology" but only top 20 percentile in "Cell Biology")?
The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
I think this is the most difficult and interesting question in the biology. I don't think that this great secret will be ever solved scientifically ! Since unsolvable until now by any means therefore this question can also be considered as the main question of biologic philosophy !
Hello, I am currently an undergraduate student at Purdue. I am currently looking at potential research topics to get into during graduate school. Right now I work in a botany lab studying ABA levels in deciduous trees. However, in my own free time, I have been obsessed with the interaction between tree species through different mycorrhizal networks. I have a decent list of researchers working on this topic (I will put their names below), but I was wondering if there are any schools or individuals I should strongly consider and reach out to before applying.
1. Rolf Geisen (Max Rubner-Institut, Germany)
2. Marc Stadler (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany)
3. John Pitt (Australia)
4. Jens Frisvad (Technical University of Denmark)
5. Vit Hubka (Charles University Prague, Czech)
6. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences http://english.im.cas.cn/rh/rd/Mycology1/
7. Keith Seifert (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agriculture-and-agri-food-research-centres-and-collections/ontario/ottawa-research-and-development-centre/scientific-staff-and-expertise/seifert-keith-phd/?id=1181921509394
8. Dr. Catherine Aime (Purdue University)
9. Songlin Fei (Purdue University)
10. Peter Kennedy (University of Minnesota)
We know that in human and animals, diet cupric ions (Cu2+) are reduced to the cuprous form (Cu+) by the metalloreductase six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate member 1 (STEAP1) and then absorbed by enterocytes via a specific transporter (CTR1). But I really don't know why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes? In addition, I would like to know whether lithium will be absorbed by any cells in human body?
My knowledge of biology is very scarce. I implore any biology or medical experts to answer this questions. Thank you!
Best wish to everyone who sees this question
I know that an infant's brain can repair itself when damaged but why doesn't the same happen in adults after stroke or brain injuries?
I want to encode Network packets (Commands & Attributes) using DNA sequence, but I want to map those network commands into a meaningful featured DNA sequence by the meaning of finally when you see the encoded network command, each codon has logical relationship with successive one, beside each codon needs to refer to existing Amino Acid.
Can we build DNA sequence that contains features rather than just letters (A,G,C,T) sequenced randomly beside each other? Does this have reference in Biology, what is your thought in this?
Say a researcher was interested in determining the number of adults vs. juveniles of species X trapped during a small mammal survey. Does there exist a relatively reliable way of doing this based on standard field measurements?
Let’s say a total of 200 individuals of species X were sampled, and the following data recorded: sex, total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, and weight. For the sake of this question imagine no additional data is available (e.g. additional observations recorded in the field, access to collected specimen material, etc.).
- Is there a way to ascertain a point or “threshold” from a range of data based on the distribution of values to distinguish between juvenile and adult individuals with a meaningful degree of accuracy? For example, male species X with weight > 142 g = adults; < 142 g = juveniles.
- If yes, which of these measurements would be most indicative? Or perhaps a combination/ratio of more than one (e.g. ratio of hind foot length to ear height > 1 = adult, etc.)?
Thanks, and looking forward to the feedback.
This picture is collected from a rice field which is heavily infected by sheath blight disease. Rice sheath is completely blighted due to this disease. The structure is formed on blighted and dried rice sheath. I have never seen such type of structure before. Could you please help me identify the structure from attached picture?
Another way of phrasing this question would be: Is there a chance that a transformed plasmid with homologous sequences does not recombine with the chromosomal DNA? If so, will a cell still be selected due to the plasmid vector containing the selectable marker? Accordingly, if previous statements are true, would one have to run multiple samples through a gel and select the colony without the plasmid (my guess)?
In my opinion, the issue of ecology should be added or extended to educational programs, including issues related to greenhouse gas emissions, faster global warming process, indispensability of implementation and development of ecological energy innovations based on renewable energy sources, improvement of degraded reclamation techniques civilization of the natural environment, sorting garbage, recycling, the need to reduce the use of plastic in product packaging, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should the scope of environmental education in schools be increased?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Hello, research community,
I am looking for some open problems in bioinformatics specifically in the area of, but not limited to, proteomics, and genomics. Since I am new to this area, any useful suggestions, a discussion on open problems and relevant resources are welcome.
I am attempting to determine the concentration of B. diminuta bacteria in an inoculated broth after 24 hours at 30 C on a shaking incubator by performing a spot plate of diluted samples and back calculating the original concentration. When I perform this, I am consistently getting very high CFU/mL values of approx. 1x10^11 CFU/mL. Can someone look over my experiment and tell me if I am making an error somewhere or is this value correct?
1) Inoculate 500 mL of Saline Lactose broth with inoculating loop dipped in pre-prepared glycerol stock of B. diminuta. Incubate on shaking incubator for 24 hrs. at 110 rpm.
2) Make eight 10x serial dilutions from 10^-1 to 10^-8 using 5 mL in 45 mL peptone water (1 g/L).
3) Plate 20 uL of each dilution in duplicate on Tryptic Soy Agar plates, allow to dry for approx. 5 minutes, and place in static incubator upside down for 18-24 hours or until colonies are visible for count.
4) Count the average # of colonies per dilution and calculate the CFU/mL using the following calculation: CFU per ml = Average number of colonies for a dilution x 50 x dilution factor.
Example: 10^-8 dilution average colonies: 19, (19 x 50 x 10^-8) = 9.5 x 10^10 CFU/mL.
Thank you for any assistance you can offer
Hi, I'm an undergraduate majoring in biology. I'm passionate about molecular cell biology (basically anything inside Bruce Alberts molecular cell biology) and was wondering, what are the big question in this field that has not been discovered? are there still unknown molecular mechanism that needs to be studied?
Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
I read this report that 3% (v/v) Ethanol increases recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. The SDS PAGE gels seem pretty convincing (1).
However, assuming I get great expression of recombinant protein with 3% (v/v) Ethanol, how am I supposed to decontaminate the biohazardous cell waste from the experiment?
Bleach decontamination isn't a good idea because bleach would react with the ethanol.
Autoclave decontamination isn't a good idea because ethanol is flammable.
Is safety just not a priority?
1) Chhetri G, Kalita P, Tripathi T. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli. MethodsX. 2015;2:385-391. Published 2015 Oct 8. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2015.09.005
Hi All, I am working with A549 cell line and trying to culture spheroids using low attachment 96 well plates. So far I have attempted some different seeding densities from 2000 to 10,000 cells and can either form very large spheroids (700-900um), which are more compact and have a spherical defined shape, or alternatively smaller spheroids (still fairly big though around 500um) are less compact and not completely spherical. However for my experiment where I wish to add drug compounds (2D IC50 approx 1uM) I am not observing significant size/morphology change on the larger spheroids despite at least a 10uM concentration for 1 week. I am thinking possibly I can try to treat smaller spheroids for a more obvious visual change. Does anyone know how i might successfully make small compact spheroids (less than 500um) which are reproducible with this cell line? Thanks in advance for any help someone may be able to provide.
I interesting in the biology of fish now, have some things, I don't understand about maturity fish. How do we know or make sure that the L50 assessment is really mature fish if not using the GSI method? please
I and working on a project for extraterrestrial life, and i need few work on the titled topic. If is there any data, recommend it or please discuss the evaluation mechanism.
Muhammad Furqan Ali
The bacteria contains two megaplasmids, one of which is 233kb. Using a Qiagen miniprep kit with spin columns, is it possible to elute even a small amount of DNA this large? Are there any modifications to be made which do not involve obtaining the anion-exchange kits designed for large constructs?
Biology Experimental, Theretical and Philisophical question.
Might contribute to understanding the unicellular organisms source and properties.
We're working with the lovely garden eels: snake-like fishes that live in big colonies, attached to the sandy sea bottom. They feed on plankton and hide in their burrows whenever something big approaches. Here's a small video of them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2WEkd9qMlw
To test whether they're using social information in their evasive behaviour, we found an edge of the colony and, after satying put for 3 minutes to ensure they were not hiding at that point, one of us slowly approached until the first eel retracted. We marked that point as our zero. Then, we marked the positions where the closest and farthest eels hide. We then measured the distances between our zero and the closest (Ri), and farthest (R1) points.
Now, our null hypothesis is that if Ri and R1 are equal, the information (the evasive behaviour) is not spreading, and therefore there's no use of social information. Our H1, then, is that if information is spreading, R1 > Ri. As every pair of R1 and Ri was taken at the same time, respect to the same point of reference (zero), and our data did not pass the Shapiro normality test, we're considering a paired Wilcoxon test. Is this appropiate? Our sample size is 68.
Thank you in advance.
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
The lock and key theory on enzymes has shortcomings because it is unable to explain the stability of the enzyme when the enzyme reaction points are switched, then the induction theory is able to answer the shortcomings of the padlock theory. So, does the theory of induction fit actually have flaws? If so, what are the shortcomings of induction fit theory? And of the two theories, which one theory better explains how enzymes work? Thank you.